E-collar electrical signal

How does the e-collar electrical signal looks like and what is the difference between the different E-collar brands?

What about the technical side of E-collars? How does the e-collar electrical signal looks like and what is the difference between the different E-collar brands? Report about the electrical signal in e-collars, click on the link to download the report. Hoe zit een E-collar technisch in elkaar? Welk signaal wordt er gegenereerd en wat is het verschil tussen verschillende merken van E-collars? Lees er hier alles over (engelstalig) The electrical signal in e-collars   Sample from the report:

Why e-collars and what is this test about ?

E-collars can be a very valuable tool in dog training and even in dog rehabilitation. This report is not about how you need to train with e-collars but mainly about the electrical signal they produce, how that signal looks like, the quality of it and a comparison between some e-collar brands. This test is done by myself and an electronics engineer.

What kind of technology is used in e-collars ?

There are different e-collar manufacturers so there are different technologies too. Yes, they all produce an electrical signal but the shape of that electrical signal differs from brand to brand and another shape can mean another feeling for the dog (also depending of other factors).  Some manufacturers invented and patented a good product with good technology but with a higher production cost and others may use another -maybe less sophisticated- technology with a lower production cost and another target audience. You can compare it with cars. You have cheap and expensive cars, all of them drive you from point A to point B but it’s the way how you drive the car that makes you a good or a bad driver. I also wanted to check what the manufacturers say about their products is reflecting the reality. For example, E-collar technologies use “blunt stimulation” and “AC” (alternating current) as a selling point.  “Blunt stimulation” is a patented technology and it should be a better signal, you can compare it with the signal of a muscle stimulator and Dogtra vendor told me the same. So E-collar technologies, and others also use AC (alternating current). AC is (according to Wikipedia) widely used in e-collars and other brands have their own selling points too. For example, Martin System manufacturer says that their e-collar continuously measures the resistance between the 2 pins and that the signal changes (lower/higher values) according to this resistance (S.S.C. patent). Every manufacturer has selling points which can vary from the design, the technology etc. just like other products. Click on the following link to download the entire report about the e-collar electrical signal: The electrical signal in e-collars  
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